Sunday, March 15, 2020
The U.S. Economy of the1960s and 1970s The 1950s in America are often described as a time of complacency. By contrast, the 1960s and 1970s were a time of significant change. New nations emerged around the world, and insurgent movements sought to overthrow existing governments. Established countries grew to become economic powerhouses that rivaled the United States, and economic relationships came to predominate in a world that increasingly recognized that the military may not be the only means of growth and expansion. The 1960s Effect on the Economy President John F. Kennedy (1961-1963) ushered in a more activist approach to governing. During his 1960 presidential campaign, Kennedy said he would ask Americans to meet the challenges of the New Frontier. As president, he sought to accelerate economic growth by increasing government spending and cutting taxes, and he pressed for medical help for the elderly, aid for inner cities, and increased funds for education. Many of these proposals were not enacted, although Kennedys vision of sending Americans abroad to help developing nations did materialize with the creation of the Peace Corps. Kennedy also stepped up American space exploration. After his death, the American space program surpassed Soviet achievements and culminated in the landing of American astronauts on the moon in July 1969. President Kennedys assassination in 1963 spurred Congress to enact much of his legislative agenda. His successor, Lyndon Johnson (1963-1969), sought to build a Great Society by spreading benefits of Americas thriving economy to more citizens. Federal spending increased dramatically, as the government launched such new programs as Medicare (health care for the elderly), Food Stamps (food assistance for the poor), and numerous education initiatives (assistance to students as well as grants to schools and colleges). Military spending also increased as Americans presence in Vietnam grew. What had started as a small military action under Kennedy mushroomed into a significant military initiative during Johnsons presidency. Ironically, spending on both wars the war on poverty and fighting the war in Vietnam contributed to prosperity in the short term. But by the end of the 1960s, the governments failure to raise taxes to pay for these efforts led to accelerating inflation, which eroded this prosperity. The 1970s Effect on the Economy The 1973-1974Ã oilÃ embargo by members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) pushed energy prices rapidly higher and created shortages. Even after the embargo ended, energy prices stayed high, adding to inflation and eventually causing rising rates of unemployment. Federal budgetÃ deficits grew, foreign competition intensified, and the stock market sagged. The Vietnam War dragged on until 1975, President Richard Nixon (1969-1973) resigned under a cloud of impeachment charges, and a group of Americans were taken hostage at the U.S. embassy in Tehran and held for more than a year. The nation seemed unable to control events, including economic affairs. Americas trade deficit swelled as low-priced and frequently high-quality imports of everything from automobiles to steel to semiconductors flooded into the United States. This article is adapted from the book Outline of the U.S. Economy by Conte and Carr and has been adapted with permission from the U.S. Department of State.
Friday, February 28, 2020
State Intervention in Private Spheres of Activity for their Intended Public Interest - Essay Example It is an important feature of contemporary society and one which is set to grow as network technologies, such as the Internet, enable us to communicate almost instantaneously with organizations and individuals regardless of geographical location. For example, it is because of the emergence of a Ã¢â¬ËborderlessÃ¢â¬â¢ society that law enforcement agencies increasingly seek to be exempted from the full rigors of the privacy laws. That this kind of exemption can lead, in turn, to misuse and abuse of these powers is perhaps one of the Ã¢â¬ËcostsÃ¢â¬â¢ we have to bear if law enforcement agencies generally are to be effective in combating crime in the information age. However, before evaluating how ethically right is the StateÃ¢â¬â¢s intervention in the privacy of the members of the society for its proposed public interests, the very terminology of Ã¢â¬Å"PrivacyÃ¢â¬ needs to be understood.The extensive material the n literature on the definition of Privacy reveals that the termÃ¢â¬â¢s meaning differs under various approaches to privacy offered by different scholars. PrivacyÃ¢â¬â¢s most widely spread definition has been coined by Warren & Brandeis (1890, p. 205) who define privacy, as an intrinsic value, the Ã¢â¬Å"right to be let aloneÃ¢â¬ (Stahl, 2007). Another approach to define privacy by (Stalder, 2002) is that of informational self-determination which sees privacy as the right to determine who accesses person-related data. This interpretation is widely spread in continental Europe whereby privacy may be taken in terms of property which includes the protection of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s financial records, health records, ex-directo ry telephone numbers, criminal records, etc. If person-related information can be treated as property, then privacy issues can be reduced to the more established (intellectual) property law as Spinello (2000) puts it.Ã
Wednesday, February 12, 2020
One person vs a group of people - Essay Example This case examines the Orpheus orchestra and the way that they run the orchestra. What makes they different from others is that they do not have a conductor that dictates the entire orchestra, rather, everyone has a say. The group started out with people who had gone to music school and coming out they decided that they were not willing to give up their musical creativity and always be under the leadership of another person. So they created this group and decided that every person would have a say in every piece of music that is to be performed. So we are talking 27 musicians who all are very opinionated and are all Ã¢â¬Å"strong-willedÃ¢â¬ putting their input into everything. So as one may put together, it was just too many opinions at one time. It took the group countless hours to rehearse all of the song with all of the suggestions that were made. So what they had decided to do was make core groups and depending on the song would depend on the group that would make suggestions and changes to how the song would be performed. They would also do the same with a concertmaster. Instead of the concertmaster acting like a conductor, they would be almost like a mediator. They would run the rehearsals and make sure that the rehearsals we productive and that the discussions didnÃ¢â¬â¢t get too out of hand and off track.
Friday, January 31, 2020
Law Enforcement Essay Abstract This research paper shall discuss the duties, the responsibilities and requirements of becoming a Federal Bureau of Investigator. It will also discuss the foundation and accomplishment of the Federal Bureau Investigation. Becoming an FBI agent is probably hard for some people because it takes a lot of dedicated time and motivation to achieve. There are steps in this field that you should apply yourself to do in order to succeed. Once you are inside the field you will enjoy doing what you love to best which is saving and protecting American Citizens from harm. This field has to be something that you are willing to commit yourself to do at all time. Introduction What interested me about becoming an FBI agent is that it involves an extensive amount of traveling around the country, which allows me to visit different places; in addition to learning about different cultures and their government. Another thing that interests me about becoming an agent is that they investigate a variety of different cases from national security and federal law, criminal activity such as bank robberies , terrorism, missing children, organize crime and drug trafficking, which gives me a great deal of experience on investigating cases. Furthermore, becoming a FBI agent gives me the opportunity to gain knowledge about variety of differentÃ sectors within the law enforcements field. Historical Overview Today in America people donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand the importance of the Federal Bureau of investigation and how much of a help they are. In 1892, most Americans who held positions within Law Enforcement didnÃ¢â¬â¢t take their job as serious as they do now, due to the fact that they were more worried about being known to the public rather than solving crimes. That later changed when Theodore Roosevelt became President. President Roosevelt along with appointed Attorney General Charles Bonaparte had put together and formed Bureau of Investigation special agentÃ¢â¬â¢s task force in 1908 (FBI). Once the Bureau of Investigation was established, they began investigating violation laws such as national banking, bankruptcy, naturalization, antitrust, peonage and fraud (FBI). By June 1910 the BureauÃ¢â¬â¢s jurisdictions had its first major expansion, which was also the year when the White Slave act was passed; The White Slave act allows the federal government the right to investigate criminals who evaded state laws but had no other federal violations and it became a crime to transport females across the state line for morally wrong purposes (FBI). By the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s new requirements were made. Prospective agents had to go through a training course, and agents had to be the age of twenty- five through thirty five (FBI). During the great depression in the United States crimes had gotten out of control, therefore the Department of JusticeÃ¢â¬â¢s Investigator had issued their first Law Enforcement Bulletin, which later became the FBI Fugitives Wanted list (FBI). On July 1, 1932, the Bureau of Investigation was renamed the United States of Investigation; A year later in July of 1933 the Department of JusticeÃ¢â¬â¢s Investigator was changed to Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The FBI carried out investigations of all threats when they felt it was a threat to the National Security. By the time 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s the FBI had stepped in on a Sabotage Investigation trying to capture four Germany men who placed explosive bombs on the beaches of Amagansett, Long Island and Ponte Vedra Beach in Florida (Wagner). They also were supposed to place explosive bombs in public for the next six weeks. George Dashch, one of the German agents who had turned himself in to the FBI and told the GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s plans of bombing some parts of U.S, because he was scared of going to prison for life in theÃ United States (Wagner). He helped the FBI capture eight Germany Saboteurs and their case became one of the biggest cases in history, because they stopped GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Saboteurs from returning (Wagner). In the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s the Civil Rights Act was passed and the FBI got involved to stop the violence with the Ku Klux Klan, the Black Panthers and other protesters (Wagner). They were to help solve murder cases that involved civil rights violations. Around the time in 1970 Director Kelley got involved to help the public trust in the FBI as well as in the law enforcement; he made numerous changes during his time and targeted the training and selection of FBI and the law enforcement leaders, the procedures of investigation intelligence collection and the prioritizing of criminal programs (FBI). During his term he made it a goal to have more women involved in the FBI. After Kelley resigned Judge William Webster took his place. While he was in office the FBI started to use laser technology to detect fingerprints on crimes scenes he also expanded the effort in the foreign counterintelligence, organized crime and white collar crime (FBI). In his time the FBI solved so many cases. FBI laboratory helped the FBI find their criminals fingerprints on a crime scene. For decades Federal Bureau Investigations has spent years trying to protect the United Stated from terrorist and foreign intelligence threats, they were committed to their values and core beliefs. P rimary Mission FBI Agents mission is to protect the United States citizen from terrorist and foreign intelligence threats, to provide leadership and criminal justice service to the federal Government, the international agencies and partners (Wagner). Their mission is to bring Justice to those who break the laws in the United States. Diversity of Jobs The FBI is a very diverse field to work in, because the people they employ come from different educational and career backgrounds. Such as lawyers, doctor, accountants, photographers, police officers, etc and their diversity continue to grow. African Americans and Hispanics make up twenty- five percent of FBI employees and women make up forty-five percent. Jurisdictional Authority There are severely other important Federal Law Enforcement agencies, but theÃ Federal Bureau of Investigation is the best known agency in the Federal Level. The FBI is involved on seven different types of investigation such as counterterrorism, financial crimes, corruption investigation, and Civil Rights (Harmon). The FBI conducts investigation on groups that have hatred towards other races or genders, Foreign Counterintelligence, organized crime and narcotics, violent crimes like bank robbers and application for sensitive government positions. Hiring Requirements In order to become a Federal of Bureau Investigator there are several steps you have to go through. You must be a U.S citizen between the ages of twenty- three through thirty seven with a valid license, your eye sight must be 20/20 and 20/40 (Harmon). To get accepted in the FBI you have to pass the exam thatÃ¢â¬â¢s given as well as do a background check. As far a resume and reference they have to talk to your past employers as well as talk to your family, friends, and colleagues, this can take up to four months for the process to finish (Harmon). If you are accepted you will do 600 hours in training in 15 weeks at the FBI Academy Quantico, Virginia (Harmon). Where you will learn how to gather evidence, case investigation, they study behavior science, master in certain computers science and learn self-defense technique (Harmon). Trainers will also learn how to recognize firearms as well use them and they must become good enough to hit a target 50 yards away (Harmon). After training you will be assigned your first case if you qualified. Top three Greatest Challenges One of the top challenges the FBI deals with is working long hour shifts by spending numerous hours at work or staking out in vehicles. They spend long shift hours on cases trying to figure the cause on why the incident happened or how can they stop the incident. Another challenge would be traveling all over the United States trying to gather information about your case and how you prevent it from happening. The last challenge would be dedicating all your time to your job and having to spend less time with your family, from being so involved with your case which takes up the majority of your time. Your Personal Critique I feel that the FBI would be a good field for me to help protect my countryÃ from any harm. I feel that working for the FBI is a very demanding job, that you have to commit to and IÃ¢â¬â¢m a very dedicated and motivated person that likes challenges and love helping others. I feel that becoming an FBI agent would be a great field for me to work in because I can do what I love as well as protecting my country Conclusion In Conclusion by doing all this back ground research on Federal Bureau of Investigation I found that they are the number one Law Enforcement agency that is called upon to respond to terrorism and participation of bills that are being passed. They handle a number of different units around the world such as missing children, national security, banking fraud or violent crimes unlike police officers who just handles local crimes, their always involved in crimes to help protect the United States. References FBI. (n.d.). Retrieved from website: http://www.fbi.gov/ Harmon, E. D. (2001). The fbi (Crime, Justice and Punishment). Philadelphia, PA: Chelsea House Publishers. Wagner, H. (2007). The federal bureau of investigation. New York: Infobase Publishing.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
The Frontier of ExistenceÃ in BeckettÃ¢â¬â¢s Waiting for Godot and IonescoÃ¢â¬â¢s RhinocerosÃ Ã Ã Ã¢â¬ËI feel that I had been at the frontier of existence, close to the place where they lose their names, their definition, the place where time stops, almost outside HistoryÃ¢â¬â¢ (E Ionesco). This essay will explore the frontier of existence in BeckettÃ¢â¬â¢s Waiting for Godot and IonescoÃ¢â¬â¢s Rhinoceros The title Rhinoceros is formed from the ancient Greek Rhino meaning nose and Keros meaning horn. However, in this play I take rhinoceros to mean an animal that is thick-skinned and ugly. The people who become rhinoceroses become as thick skinned as the rhinoceroses they turn into. On first viewing of Rhinoceros one journeys with the characters on what appears to be something of a mystery tour. One cannot be sure if a rhinoceros really exists. It is this sense of unknowing that makes for a lack of definition in the characters themselves. There is JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s first announcement of Ã¢â¬ËOh a rhinocerosÃ¢â¬â¢ (Act I:I P.14) as he points off stage is tantalising as one can only hear noises. One tries to define the situation and the characters by questioning their imagination and sanity. Much that one might expect to be told about the characters and their situation is denied to us. One only gets little snippets of information about their society for example a couple of revelations fr om Jean to Berenger: Ã¢â¬ËthereÃ¢â¬â¢s been no zoo in our town since the animals were destroyed in the plagueÃ¢â¬ ¦ages agoÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢ (I:I P.20) and Ã¢â¬ËYou know perfectly well that the Council banned all travelling performers from the districtÃ¢â¬ ¦There havenÃ¢â¬â¢t been any since we were children.Ã¢â¬â¢ (I:I P.20). Council has a capital Ã¢â¬ËcÃ¢â¬â¢ and there is no mention of God anywhere which is a striking opposite from Waiting f... ...ific tyranny or exile; perhaps the Nazi occupation of France or separation from oneÃ¢â¬â¢s homeland. But one does have choices as definition does not have to be of a single entity. Emphasis could be put on defining what happens while Vladimir and Estragon are waiting rather than notions of termination Works Cited Ã Beckett, Samuel, Waiting for Godot Cohen, R., Back to Beckett Coe, Richard N., EugÃ ¨ne Ionesco: A Study of His Work Hayman, Ronald, EugÃ ¨ne Ionesco Ionesco, EugÃ ¨ne, Rhinoceros, The Chairs and The Lesson Lamont, Rosette C., Ionesco: A Collection of Critical Essays Lamont, Rosette C. and Friedman, M.J., The two faces of Ionesco Lazar, Moshe., The Dream and the Play: IonescoÃ¢â¬â¢s Theatrical Quest Lyons, C., Samuel Becket Lewis, Allan, Ionesco Pronko, Leonard C., EugÃ ¨ne Ionesco Worth, K., Beckett the Shape Changer Ã
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
1. Explain the use of each of the six phases of the nursing process. The nursing process consists of six dynamic and interrelated phases: assessment, diagnosis, outcome identification, planning, implementation and evaluation 2. List the elements of each of the six phases of the nursing process Asses- gather information about the clients condition, Diagnose-identify the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s problems, plan and identify outcomes- set goals of care and desired outcomes and identify appropriate nursing actions, Implement- perform the nursing actions identified in planning, Evaluate- Determine if goals met and outcomes acheived 3. Describe the establishment of the database When you have obtained the history and completed the physical examination with accuracy, you have the needed information to establish a database ( a large store or bank of information) 4. Discuss the steps used to formulate a nursing diagnosis A nursing diagnosis is a clinical judgement about individual, family, or community responses about actual or potential health problems/life processes. 5. Differentiate between types of health problems It is important to distinguish collaborative problems and medical diagnoses from nursing diagnoses. these two types of problems are defined and discussed separately 6. Describe the development of patient centered outcomes The nurse develops expected outcomes for the established nursing diagnosis. A patient outcome statement provides a description of the specific, measurable behavior that the patient will be able to exhibit in a given time frame following the interventions. 7. Discuss the creation of nursing orders Because nursing interventions offered in textbooks and care planning manuals are often broad, general statements that indicate an activity to be performed it is often necessary to convert these nursing interventions to more specific instructional statements 8. Explain the evaluation of a nursing care plan Evaluation is determination made about the extent to which the established outcomes have been achieved 9. Demonstrate the nursing process by preparing a nursing care plan Completing the initial assessment, analyzing the data, writing the nursing diagnoses, selecting outcomes, and selecting appropriate nursing interventions, it is the nurseÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility to communicate the detailed plan of care for the patient 10. Explain north american nursing diagnosis association international (nanda-i), nursing interventions classification (NIC), and nursing outcomes classification (NOC) NANDA-approved an official definition for nursing diagnoses, This standardized language, developed at the university of iowa encourages enhanced communication between nurses about nursing intervenions. NOC which measures the effects of nursing care, is the effort of a group of researchers working at the university of iowa. 11. Describe the use of clinical pathways in managed care A clinical pathway is a multi disciplinary plan that schedules clinical interventons over an anticipated time fram for high-risk, high volume, high-cost type of cases. 12. Discuss critical thinking in nursing Critical thinking for nursing as a discipline- specific reflective reasoning process that guides a nurse in generating implementing, and evaluating approaches for dealing with client care and professional concerns. 13. Define evidenced-based practice The use of research to determine best practices, or the interventions or approaches to patient care that will have the best impact on patient outcomes. In contrast, professionals in the past used educational knowledge, consultation with peers and specialists, and their own experiences to make decisions about patient care and to select interventions.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
James VI Is Desire to Create a Perfect Union Between Scotland and England After succeeding the English thrown in 1603, James VI I of Scotland and England aimed to create the perfect union. In 1604 he proclaimed himself king of Britain and attempted full unification of the nations. This was to involve uniting the Scottish and English parliaments, the church and the legal systems. It also included free trade, repeal of hostile laws and the renewal of borders. Jamess plan to create a perfect union was not to be successful for numerous reasons. This essay will discuss the opposing views held by the Scottish and English parliaments and the objections from the church. It will consider theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Scotland was, after all, a poor nation and full unification would provide the benefits of, strength, peace and security for Britain and he himself would be known for his greatness on a European level. James somewhat achieved this as, French and Venetian ambassadors were impressedÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦by the extent of the kings authority. James was determined to succeed with the full unification of Scotland and England. In April 1604, the Commons were asked to consider his new title as that of king of Britain. Their objection to do so deeply offended James as he considered it his right. Decisions were delayed because the union was imperfect and many were unclear as to exactly what it would involve. Commons were weary of James because he intervened in such a way they had not been used to. As he made use of his full powers, some were classifying it as, unwarranted interference in their affairs. With the continual postponing of the acknowledgement of Jamess position, he exercised his right of royal prerogative and proclaimed himself king of Great Britain in October 1604. His intentions of full unification were made known in his persuasive opening speech to Parliament when he said, What God hath conjoined let no man separate. I am the husband and all the whole isle is my lawful wife. I am the head and it is the body. I am the shepherd and it is the flock. I hope,